Occurrence of mycotoxins in feeds and feed ingredients in China.
Guan, S., Gong, M., Yin, Y.L., Huang, R.L., Ruan, Z., Zhou, T., and Xie, M-Y. (2011). "Occurrence of mycotoxins in feeds and feed ingredients in China.", Journal of Food, Agriculture & Environment (JFAE), 9(2), pp. 163-167.
The occurrence of mycotoxins in agricultural commodities, including corn, compound animal feeds, silage, cornmeal, puffed corn, wheat, bran, soybean meal, rapeseed meal, distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), total mixed ration (TMR), concentrate supplement, cottonseed meal and whole cottonseed have been investigated in China during November 2008 - May 2009. Eighty-three samples were analyzed for the major mycotoxins of interest in China, namely aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), zearalenone (ZEN), 4-deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisin (FUM), fusariotoxin T2 (T2) and ochratoxin A (OTA) using HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) analysis. AFB1 occurred in 38.2% of 76 samples at a mean concentration of 16.5 μg/kg and a maximum of 160.9 μg/kg. ZEN was detected in 97.6% of the 83 samples analyzed at concentrations ranging from trace (3.3) to 3182.1 μg/kg. DON occurred at an average of 1670.2 μg/kg with an overall incidence of 95.2% among the 83 samples analyzed. FUM was detected at an average of 3971.8 μg/kg in 81 samples and at a maximum of 49313.4 μg/kg in a corn sample. T2 and OTA occurred in feed samples with frequencies at 80.0% and 61.5% and concentrations reaching 712.6 μg/kg and 98.1 μg/kg, respectively. Co-occurrence of mycotoxins is widespread in this study and the majority of tested samples (97.6%) were contaminated with more than one mycotoxins.