Calendar and degree-day requirements for emergence of adult Macroglenes penetrans (Kirby), an egg-larval parasitoid of wheat midge, Sitodiplosis mosellana (Géhin).
Elliott, R.H., Mann, L.W., and Olfert, O.O. (2011). "Calendar and degree-day requirements for emergence of adult Macroglenes penetrans (Kirby), an egg-larval parasitoid of wheat midge, Sitodiplosis mosellana (Géhin).", Crop Protection, 30(4), pp. 405-411. doi : 10.1016/j.cropro.2010.12.007
The chalcidoid wasp, Macroglenes penetrans (Kirby), is an important parasitoid of wheat midge, Sitodiplosis mosellana (Géhin), in Europe and western Canada. Emergence of adult wasps was evaluated at 12 sites in Saskatchewan in 1991-2000. Emergence was assessed in relation to calendar days and accumulated degree-days above five different threshold air temperatures. Male wasps emerged 1-2 days before the female wasps. Dates for 10%, 50% and 90% emergence of both wasp sexes were July 16, July 21 and July 30, respectively. Standard deviations (SD) indicated that emergence dates varied by 6.2-7.7 days. The variation in dates related to degree-day accumulations between March 1 and July 31. Wasps emerged 2-12 days earlier than expected at sites with the highest accumulation and 2-17 days later than expected at sites with the lowest accumulation. Accumulated degree-days above 9 °C provided the most accurate estimate of 10% emergence (450 DD, SD = 2.4 days) and 90% emergence (579 DD, SD = 5.0 days). Accumulated degree-days above 5 or 9 °C provided the most accurate estimate of 50% emergence (823 DD, SD = 3.0 days; 503 DD, SD = 3.1 days, respectively). Deviations between observed and expected emergence were greatest at sites with either low or high precipitation. In most instances, wasps emerged 1-8 days earlier than expected at sites that received 20-40 mm rain in May and 1-11 days later than expected at sites that received more than 145 mm rain in May and June. Degree-days above 5 or 9 °C minimized the variation at these sites. Emergence was re-assessed in 2008 and 2009. In both years, accumulated degree-days above 9 °C predicted 10%, 50% and 90% emergence within 0.1-2.2 days. Forecast maps, based on daily degree-day accumulations above 9 °C, would assist producers in monitoring their fields for the presence of wasps. Producers could also adjust the timing, rate and placement of sprays for control of wheat midge to protect and conserve the parasitoid.