Global diversity of Hymenopterans (Hymenoptera; Insecta) in freshwater.
Bennett, A.M.R. (2008). "Global diversity of Hymenopterans (Hymenoptera; Insecta) in freshwater.", Hydrobiologia, 595(1), pp. 529-534. doi : 10.1007/s10750-007-9036-y
A summary of the known species of aquatic Hymenoptera is presented. In total, 150 species from 11 families are recognized as aquatic (0.13% of the total described species). This number is likely an underestimate, because of the high percentage of undescribed species and a lack of knowledge of host range and behaviour for most species. All aquatic Hymenoptera are parasitoids. Many species have relatively dense pubescence to trap air and elongate, tarsal claws to grip the substrate, when underwater. Most species are known from the Holarctic and Oriental regions, but this is likely an artefact caused by lack of knowledge of other regions of the world. Aquatic behaviour has evolved independently at least 50 times within the order.