Review and identification keys to the ichneumonid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) of Nearctic Choristoneura species (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).
Bennett, A.M.R. (2008). "Review and identification keys to the ichneumonid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) of Nearctic Choristoneura species (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).", Canadian Entomologist, 140(1), pp. 1-47. doi : 10.4039/n07-011
Wasps of the family Ichneumonidae recorded as parasitoids of Choristoneura Lederer (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in North America are summarized. A total of 113 species in 45 genera and 11 subfamilies have been reliably reared from 10 species of Nearctic Choristoneura. Twenty-one more species are listed as possible parasitoids of Nearctic Choristoneura, based on rearings from Palearctic Choristoneura species and (or) limited introductions to North America. Well-illustrated identification keys are provided to the subfamilies, all genera, and species of 39 of the genera. The species of Choristoneura used as hosts by the 113 ichneumonid species are tabulated, as well as the wasps’ geographic ranges. The biological characteristics of the ichneumonid subfamilies parasitizing Choristoneura spp. are described and compared. Erroneous Choristoneura host records and synonyms for all ichneumonid taxa previously recorded from Nearctic Choristoneura spp. are given. Phaeogenes gaspesianus Provancher is moved to Dirophanes Förster, forming D. gaspesianus (Provancher) comb. nov. New host records are Phaeogenes cacoeciae Viereck and Scambus hispae (Harris) on C. rosaceana (Harris), D. gaspesianus and Pimpla disparis Viereck on C. fumiferana (Clemens) (P. disparis having been introduced to New Brunswick to control the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.)), and Exochus turgidus Holmgren on C. occidentalis Freeman